Genetic engineering is a way of manipulating the genes to produce new creatures with the desired properties. Genetic engineering is also called transplants or gene recombination DNA. DNA used in genetic engineering to combine the properties of living beings. That's because the DNA of every living being has the same structure, so it can be recommended. Further DNA will govern the properties of living beings for generations.
Genetic engineering objects include almost all classes of organisms, ranging from bacteria, fungi, lower animals, higher animals, to plants. Medicine and pharmacy at the most invested in this relatively new field. Meanwhile other fields, such as food science, veterinary medicine, agriculture (including livestock and fisheries), as well as environmental engineering has also been involved science to develop their respective fields.

 This applied science can be regarded as a branch of biology as well as engineering sciences (engineering). Can be considered, is the beginning of the efforts made to reveal material that is inherited from one generation to another. When people find out that the chromosome is a material that carries the inherited material (called genes) then that's the beginning of this science. Of course, the discovery of the DNA structure to be the most essential point because this is where people can then determine how the properties can be altered by changing the composition of DNA, which is a polymer varies.

 The next important stages of the discovery of restriction enzymes is a series of (cutting) of DNA, regulation (setting expression) DNA (starting from the discovery of the lactose operon in prokaryotes), assembly PCR, genetic transformation, gene reduction techniques (including RNA interference), and mutation techniques directional (like Tilling). In line with the important discoveries, developments in the field of biostatistics, bioinformatics and robotics / automation plays an important role in the progress and efficiency of the field work.
To change the cell's DNA can be done through many ways, for example through the nucleus transplantation, cell fusion, plasmid technology, and DNA recombination. Genetic engineering is one application of biotechnology is the most widely used man.

1. Nucleus transplantation

Transplant is the removal of the core nucleus of a cell to another in order to have new individuals in accordance with the nature of the receipt of the core. Core transplant ever performed on frog cells. Cell nucleus is transferred nucleus of intestinal cells that are diploid frog. The cell nucleus is inserted into the ovum without a nucleus, forming a diploid ovum with the nucleus. After being given a new core, ovum divides by mitosis, forming many times that developed into morula blastula.

Blastula is then cut into many cells and taken the point. Then the cores are inserted into the ovum without the other nucleus. Eventually formed nucleated diploid ova in large quantities. Each of these will the ovum develops into a new individual by nature and of the same sex.

2. Cell fusion

Cell fusion is the fusion of two cells either from the same or different species in order to form hybrid cells or hybridoma. Cell fusion preceded by a widening of the two cell membranes and cytoplasm followed by smelting (plasmogami) and smelting cell nucleus (kariogami). Benefits of cell fusion, among others, for mapping chromosomes, making monoclonal antibodies, and form a new species. In the cell fusion is necessary to:

    cell gene sources (source ideal properties)
    container cells (cells that can divide rapidly)
    fusigen (substances that speed up cell fusion)

 3. Technology plasmid

Plasmids are small circular DNA present in bacteria or yeast cells outside of chromosomes. Plasmid properties, among others:

    a DNA molecule containing a specific gene;
    can beraplikasi themselves;
    can be transferred to other bacterial cells;
    properties of plasmids in bacterial offspring with the parent plasmid.

Due to the properties mentioned above is used as a vector or plasmid transfer genes into target cells.

 4. DNA recombination

DNA recombination is the process of combining DNA-DNA from different sources. The goal is to connect genes that are present in it. Therefore, recombination of DNA called recombination. DNA recombination can be done for the following reasons.

    DNA structure every living species together.
    DNA can be connected


 


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